Jasmine Tran (Danlambao) - From the commencement of its operations in Hà Tĩnh, Vietnam, the Formosa Steel Plant has continually released toxic waste into the surrounding sea water. It has caused one of the worst ever environmental catastrophes in the country.
In April 2016, hundreds of tons of marine creatures had washed ashore in four central provinces. Underwater coral systems, marine plants and sea birds living on nearby regional islands were also destroyed.
The destruction of all this marine life has had harmful consequences on both locals and those across the nation. People no longer dare to eat seafood products from Central Vietnam. Jobs within sea-related industries, such as fishing, salt farming, seafood trading, restaurants, and the local tourism industry have all been heavily impacted. This does not even taken the fatal diseases, caused by toxins released into the environment, into account.[i]
Despite Formosa’s admission of its “mistake” in causing an environmental disaster, and its agreement to compensate the state $500 million for damages, it continues to operate while local fishermen have been encouraged and urged into finding alternative livelihoods. The government has even attempted to export these fishermen as overseas labourers. Neither the State nor Formosa have outlined any plan to decontaminate the sea so that local fishermen and their families could return to their former lives.
Furthermore, following the discovery of toxic substances released into the sea, solid toxic waste from Formosa was found buried secretly in many sites underground in the district. These were found near water sources and reservoirs for human consumption and agriculture. [ii]
The Vietnamese people angrily oppose the Government’s deal with Formosa. They demand Formosa fully compensate damages sustained to their economy, and their health and wellbeing. They request that Formosa return an unpolluted sea to them, cease their operations and depart Vietnam. Additionally, the State must cease all acts of intimidation against their citizens; such acts seek to protect high-ranking officers with ties to Formosa and have allowed for the continued operation of Formosa.
The Vietnamese people are very touched by the concern of Taiwanese journalists and Ms. Su Chih-fen, member of the Democratic Progressive Party, for the victims of this environmental disaster. We sincerely thank you for your support and help. [iii]
This article aims to systematically gather the most relevant, representative opinions of the Vietnamese people on the Formosa issue. They will be collected through blogs, articles and interviews. The authors of these articles, the interviewers and the respondents have all demonstrated immense courage, as they risk imprisonment and persecution from the State of Vietnam.
1/Formosa’s deadly impact on the Central Vietnamese environment
To allow for Formosa’s 70 year rent of Vũng Áng, the Vietnamese Government forcibly dislocated Hà Tĩnh villagers into remote inland areas, compensating them with very little money. Schools and rural markets were all closed so that children from families who refused to relocate had no access to education, and adults could not make a living for their families. Houses by the beach were demolished, and fishermen were forced to leave the beach area.[iv]
Following this, an environmental disaster was caused by Formosa’s release of toxic waste into the sea. The marine creatures and vegetation in Hà Tĩnh and adjacent provinces were all destroyed.
Archbishop Joseph Ngô Quang Kiêt spoke about the lives of the local people in Đông Yên Hà Tĩnh on 22 June 2016:
“As I saw first-hand how they lived, and visited the coastal areas, I was truly pained. The atmosphere was utterly devastated and lifeless. I went to a motel in Hà Tĩnh, it was empty with nobody around. When I arrived at the beach, I saw many boats lying there. Some of them were covered with tarps, and they looked like still bodies. It was a landscape of death.
At the beach, there usually are tiny creatures like sand bubbler crabs, crabs, or clams. However, this beach was completely dead; not a single sign of life could be seen there. When we walked on the beach, all of us were extremely careful not to let the water wet our feet. Fishermen pulled their boats further onto the sand, so they could climb ashore without touching the sea water. The sense of death was everywhere.
Villagers’ lives have become very difficult; in the past three months, local fishermen have not been able to fish in the sea. Their families have barely any earnings to live on. So we were witnessing the end, the death of these villages.
The fishermen can’t live, as all the fish have died. All those labourers in industries linked to the fisheries – the fuel-suppliers for the fishing boats, the manufacturers of fishing nets, the seafood traders, the seafood processing workers, the tourism workers – they will all die out together.
It is estimated that at least five million people have been affected by this marine death disaster. It is a complete tragedy. The surrounding area is lifeless and abandoned. Everyone is exhausted, devastated and dejected.”[v]
With the sea contaminated and the fish poisoned from toxic waste, how can the people of Hà Tĩnh live?
Phạm Thanh Nghiên:
“Formosa has turned dignified people who made an honest living for themselves into beggars, who now must line up for a dozen kilos of rice - mouldy rice that even dogs and chickens will avoid.”[vi]
2/ The united opinion of the Vietnamese people: Destruction of the environment is a crime - we reject the sacrifice of our environment and our future at all costs
Venerable Thích Viên Định - Unified Buddhist Church of Vietnam:
“Sangha/Followers of the Unified Buddhist Church of Vietnam strongly hope for the national economy to grow. However, it must also be a healthy development. We cannot accept any sacrifice of our environment and the future of the nation in exchange for economic development. Fundamentally, all developments are meant to assist people’s lives. If they destroy human lives and their well-being, such ‘developments’ are pointless.”[vii]
The Statement on the Poisoning of Central Vietnam’s Marine Life:
“This is a crime against the environment, causing environmental destruction and ecological genocide. Firstly, fish and sea animals have died en masse, and there are human casualties too. Secondly, this will lead to a variety of diseases for humans and animals, as we have seen happen in many other instances worldwide. The full extent of the damage is yet to be seen.”[viii]
Protesters’ voice on banners:
From the beginning of May 2016, the Vietnamese people have taken to the streets and raised their voices: “Harming the environment is a crime”, “Destroying the environment is destroying life”, “Fish need clean water, people need clean government”, “We demand the state to start criminal prosecution of Formosa”, “The government + Formosa are killing the people of Vietnam”, “The authorities are allowing Formosa to kill Vietnamese people”, “Formosa, get out of Vietnam!”.
In particular, on August 15, 2016, up to 30,000 people attended a rally in the archdiocese of Vinh.[ix]
Bishop of Vinh Archdiocese Nguyễn Thái Hợp’s Collective letter on the maritime catastrophe of Central Vietnam:
“The damages caused by this environmental disaster has far exceeded the profits that an industrial zone could have ever brought. Worst of all are the effects of heavy metals on human health. We are facing a severe disaster. The consequences of this disaster will not only affect each of us today, but will impact on generations to come.”[x]
The Civil Society Organizations Statement on the national catastrophe in Central Vietnam:
“We, the Vietnamese people have resolutely decided not to preference economic growth over the destruction of our national environment, over the benefit of the people, and over our state sovereignty. We, the Vietnamese people do not accept rulers who are ignorant and greedy, who are willing to sell our nation in exchange for their personal ambition, their interests, and their party’s profit. We, the Vietnamese people refuse to die such a horrible death as the fish currently poisoned in the East Sea!”[xi]
A call for action from the Vietnamese Blogger's Network:
“Environmental disaster caused by the Formosa Hà Tĩnh Steel Corporation (FHS) has created serious consequences such as long-term harmful effects on the environment, the health and the life of people as well as the national economy. Fishermen in four provinces of Hà Tĩnh, Quảng Bình, Quảng Trị, and Thừa Thiên - Huế are most directly affected. More importantly, living conditions, cultural traditions and fishing developments that took centuries to evolve are now at risk of being demolished due to a corporation’s irresponsible actions.
With the death of millions of fish, the contamination of the sea will chase away Vietnamese fishermen, subsequently creating more favourable opportunities for Beijing to invade Vietnam by putting Chinese fishermen in Vietnam’s deserted waters.
Therefore, the mass killing of fish in four central provinces is not only the most serious environmental catastrophe in the history of Vietnam but also an enormous crisis in social, political areas and will affect survivability, and the independence of Vietnam profoundly.”[xii]
Mr Mai Quang Anh, Hà Tĩnh fisherman:
“It is apparent that the government had deliberately allowed Formosa to build in the country. This was done for the benefit of a particular group of people - at that moment, Mr Cự, Party Secretary and Chairman of Hà Tĩnh, and Nguyễn Tấn Dũng, the Prime Minister. Their actions can be described in the old saying – bringing an elephant home and letting it trample over your family’s graves. In such a beautiful country with amazing landscapes like Vietnam, how could they allow foreign companies like Formosa to establish themselves and discharge toxic waste into our seas and harm our environment? We absolutely cannot agree with their actions.”[xiii]
3/ Outrage as government deals with Formosa on 500M destruction compensation: Vietnamese people demand criminal prosecution against Formosa and an independent investigation on damages to humans and the environment – Compensation must be proportional to the damage – Close Formosa down and clean the sea, return a clean sea to the people
After utilising brutal and violent tactics against demonstrators at rallies against Formosa, the Vietnamese Government have approved US $ 500M from Formosa as damage compensation, without a formal and independent investigation into the actual environmental and human harms. Formosa, which has not only discharged harmful waste into the sea, also has buried hard toxic waste at multiple sites inland, and released huge amounts of toxic fumes into the air. Formosa’s operations have seriously polluted the sea water, drinking water and the air quality of the provinces.
Let's hear our opinion:
Diocese of Vinh, Bishop Nguyễn Thái Hợp:
If a government truly represents its people, it must conduct an environmental damage assessment, including assessment of damages to affected people and businesses. These are common principles and practices applied in other countries. Instead, this government has covertly made a deal with Formosa, and has approved its compensation payment. In this day and age, such an underhanded arrangement is unacceptable.
We think that in order to return the central sea to its former healthy and clean state, Formosa needs to cease its operations. If we closely examine Formosa’s actions, it has not only discharged toxic waste into the sea, but has also made deals with authorities to bury its hard waste underground. How can such a company with such leaders be trusted?[xiv]
The Archdiocese of Vinh’s suggestions on marine pollution in Central Vietnam - Priest Đặng Hữu Nam:
“This petition will act as a general message from the Bishop of the diocese. Its requests are: firstly, begin a public and transparent investigation on the cause of the mass fish die-off. Secondly, provide immediate aid and relief to those affected. Thirdly, request Formosa to clarify how they use the hazardous/poisonous substances they have imported into the country, as discovered by the media. Finally, prosecute those responsible for causing this catastrophe.”[xv]
Lawyer Luân Lê:
“The impact of this disaster on the environment include: the mass fish die-off, an immense human cost - a diver has died, many are sick, many had food poisoning after the consumption of seafood - and the ongoing pollution of the sea for the years to come. Due to the severe impact of this damage, there is a tangible possibility of conducting a criminal prosecution against those directly, or indirectly, responsible. Those individuals must be legally and fairly trialed for causing this unprecedented disaster, which has critically harmed our economy and national security.”[xvi]
Lawyer Nguyễn Văn Thân:
“Let us compare compensation payments from BP and Formosa: 61.6 billion and 500 million. Firstly, does this mean that Formosa will only repay 500 M? How much of this 500M will be used to cover the costs of sea water treatment? And how much will be used to compensate individuals affected by the catastrophe? The government has no right to arbitrarily decide the damage compensation for individuals and businesses. Only the people should have the right to negotiate with Formosa. The compensation payment must be proportional to the losses in each particular case.”[xvii]
A call for action from the Vietnamese Blogger's Network:
“A/ Demand a full re-assessment of the damage to the environment, and to the people's lives. This must be conducted by independent professional appraisers so that compensation can be disbursed fairly and appropriately.
B/ Demand the prosecution of all individuals responsible for this catastrophe before the criminal courts.
C/ Termination of all operations of Hưng Nghiệp Formosa Hà Tĩnh Steel Company in Vietnam.”
Dr. Bùi Thị An, Member of Parliament:
“The most vital question now is how to restore the sea environment. When will the ecosystems return to a natural state, so that fishermen can confidently resume their activities? These matters are extremely significant because they have an impact on the social security and lives of not only the fishermen in four Central provinces, but also on other industries in many regions. Moreover, how can sea products be guaranteed as safe for consumers? Most importantly, the presence of fishermen in marine areas is not only significant for economic purposes, but also preserves maritime sovereignty. The issue is, on what basis did Formosa suggest a compensation of $500M? How much will it cost to restore our marine ecosystems?
A marine ecosystem consists of fish, shrimp, algae, sea plants etc. These creatures are integral to human lifestyles; marine ecosystems are thus invaluable and irreplaceable.
We must seriously emphasize the need for transparency so that our people can monitor the situation and stay informed. Only transparency will allow us to prevent such environmental destruction from happening again. We must never sacrifice our environment in exchange for anything. Personally, I think we must conduct a prosecution, as this is not simply an economic or civil matter: it is a criminal violation.”[xviii]
Võ Thị Hảo, Writer:
“When examining the evidence from this Formosa issue, it is apparent that the Vietnamese Communist Government has in fact abetted the destruction of the Vietnamese people. To me, that is something beyond the imagination of the concerned people following the current situation. It is something beyond the imagination of the Vietnamese people.
If we review previous compensation agreements, for example, BP’s oil spill catastrophe and their efforts to repair the sea, we can see that 500M is an extremely small figure. What kind of special privileges did the Vietnamese Government accept, in order to approve 500M? They have no groundwork for any decisions to either agree or reject that 500M. The damage evaluation requires the assessment of holistic damages – such as the time it would take for the sea to be returned to the people in a healthy, unpolluted state. Numerous things need to be calculated.”[xix]
Thục Quyên (SaveVietnam´sNature):
“The United Nations have willingly offered their help in investigating the disaster. It was evident to them that this was not just an environmental disaster, but also the struggle of a small nation – Vietnam - at the hands of giant corporations: MCC China Metallurgical Group Corporation (People’s Republic of China) and FPG Formosa Plastics Group.
However, the Vietnamese authorities declined this offer of invaluable and reliable help.
There is nowhere else in the world like Vietnam, where the government will accuse victims seeking help of “exaggerating the disaster” and “having a political plot”, and describing those victims as “reactionary”!”
“There is no country like in Vietnam, where the protestors are brutally beaten by its own authorities when they make peaceful rallies in order to save the sea and the people. Only the Vietnamese people who must pay taxes to feed the powerful police force who punch, hit, and arrest them. Only the Vietnamese police who are of the same nation and ethnic can aggressively smash the heads of their citizens with stones in a most cold-blooded way.”[xx]
Mặc Lâm, RFA’s Vietnamese service:
“Many still remember that a few weeks after the sea disaster occurred, the United Nations, the USA, Germany, and Japan all offered technical help and resources to assist Vietnam. However, all of their proposals were rejected without explanation. As in Vietnam, technical methods of analysis are still limited, these rejections raised questions about the willingness of the state to solve this issue. This was particularly within the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, the ministry responsible for the incident both prior to, and after the disaster had occurred.”[xxi]
Dr. Nguyễn Xuân Diện:
“Firstly, $500M as compensation for this disaster is a trifling amount of money. Secondly, as it was not based on any legal grounds, a number of scholars, intellectuals and I have called for lawyers, inspectors, and activists to request the Vietnamese Government conduct a criminal prosecution against Formosa.
Furthermore, we must manage to help around a million of fishermen and affected people in four Central provinces to bring Formosa to the International Court, as we no longer have faith in the law courts of Vietnam. Lastly, as it is a hugely critical issue, we require that this environmental catastrophe be internationalized to attract support from the outside.”[xxii]
Phạm Đoan Trang, journalist:
Phạm Đoan Trang, journalist:
“The $500M that Formosa has agreed to compensate Vietnam is the price the state will take, selling off the country’s present and future.”[xxiii]
“If Formosa remains in operation here, where will they dump their waste next? The government made a terrible decision when they allowed Formosa to come here, considering their infamous reputation as an ‘environmental killer’. Now, if the government allow Formosa to continue operations, they are surely repeating their deadly mistake again.
Put Formosa to trial, make them compensate the fishermen, and kick them out of the country. We need foreign investment, not foreign destruction!”[xxiv]
Mai Thạnh, Hà Tĩnh fisherman:
Mai Thạnh, Hà Tĩnh fisherman:
"Formosa has committed a crime against all the workers of the sea. I request Formosa to cease their operations, for us to rebuild our lives; if they stay, we will all die of starvation. If they don’t close down, the people will revolt!”[xxv]
Mai Văn Đình, local fisherman in Đông Yên Parish, Kỳ Anh district, Hà Tĩnh province:
“I have to travel to Phan Thiet to work as the sea water in Hà Tĩnh is contaminated with lead. I request the government to expel Formosa from Vietnam. And if for any reason they do not, we will not accept that amount of compensation.”
Regarding state-run media reports on the recovery of the sea and marine life in Hà Tĩnh:
Regarding state-run media reports on the recovery of the sea and marine life in Hà Tĩnh:
"Hà Tĩnh’s newspaper was lying and falsifying information – such a thing could never happen like that. I know because ten days ago, I came back home from Phan Thiết and after eating somesquid, I was very sick with diarrhoea and vomiting. I then took some medication - the diarrhoea and vomiting stopped, but then my legs and hands became paralyzed.”
When asked about his faith in the Vietnamese Government:
"The government of Vietnam has committed many wrongdoings. They betray their country, they are corrupt and willing sell out the nation. A country like ours, with a bright future, has ultimately been sold out to adversaries – even worse, those adversaries have been protected.
This was clearly seen when security and police forces were obstructing us at rallies against Formosa.”[xxvi]
Mai Quang Anh, Hà Tĩnh local fisherman:
“Did the government actually evaluate how much damage Formosa has caused for us? Do they know for people like us, how much each individual has been affected? And what about the total impacts on a village, a commune, a province or all four provinces? I suggest the government investigate and carefully calculate these damages before making a decision on compensation payments. It wouldn’t be 500M, but possibly several thousands of millions.
Firstly, those responsible for the pollution of the sea must return the environment to its former clean state, as a serving action for the people - it is only fair. Secondly, a criminal prosecution must be conducted against Formosa - as the Prime Minister Xuân Phúc has said, the law must be fairly applied to any offender. Lastly, Formosa must be permanently shut down once all the legal measures are finalized.
That is not simply a personal wish. The Vietnamese people are now united in this shared perspective, with a collective determination to fight for the truth, and for the survival of our people.”[xxvii]
4/To the Vietnamese Government: will you side with your people or with Formosa – an environmental killer, presented with the International Ethecon Black Planet Award in 2009?
The proposal to export local fishermen to become overseas labourers has been disrupted, after blood tests revealed high levels of lead were present in their bloodstreams. [xxviii]The state has appeared even more dishonest, as they have suggested to doctors not to provide health check-ups for locals in contaminated areas. [xxix]
Government officials advised people that in some areas, the sea was now safe for swimming, and that the sea would automatically clean itself. However, they could not answer whether or not fish were safe for consumption.
According to Dr. Nguyễn Hữu Đại, this is a difficult dilemma to solve, as fish and sea animals gradually accumulate small amount of toxic substances into their bodies which do not kill them instantly. Those sea creatures are caught, transported to different areas including Hanoi, where, according to Dr Trần Tứ Hiếu, there are consumers eating sea food without any knowledge where their fish had come from.[xxx]
When will the sea be returned to its previous state? When will nontoxic fish reappear? The lives of the Central Vietnamese people have become extremely miserable under the repressive information restrictions of the government. Huge number of protestors have taken to the streets calling for Formosa to cease its operations and face prosecution.
1999, from Cambodia, more than 4,000 tonnes of waste and top soil were sent back to Taiwan. The waste, which contains high levels of mercury, was illegally dumped near the popular coastal resort of Sihanoukville by Taiwanese petrochemical giant Formosa Plastics. [xxxi]
In 2007, Taiwanese of all classes in the community fought to successfully terminate the operations of the Formosa Steel Plant in their country. Why must the Vietnamese Government bring such a horror home and let the whole nation live in nightmare? We cannot take on a risk like Formosa, which its own people – the Taiwanese – did not allow on their beautiful island.[xxxii]
Formosa is an environmental killer which was awarded the negative International Ethecon Black Planet Award in 2009.
Social activist Nguyễn Anh Tuấn, who has provided charitable assistance to affected local people, concludes:
Formosa has caused the worst ever environmental disaster in our history. It has destroyed the lifestyles of 200,000 workers by the sea, and affected millions of others in related industries. It has damaged an entire 200km long marine ecosystem, had a disastrous impact on the economy, on politics, and on social security. For all these reasons, it is unacceptable for Formosa to remain in Vietnam for even one day more, let alone 70 years. [xxxiii]
And that exactly is what we, the Vietnamese people, demand.
To the Vietnamese Government, which will you choose? Your people or Formosa?
[i] Xuan Loc Doan. “Vietnam’s mass fish kill isn’t simply an environmental disaster” 13 May 2016. http://atimes.com/2016/05/vietnams-mass-fish-kill-isnt-simply-an-environmental-disaster/ (accessed 10 September 2016)
Song Hà. “Báo động đỏ thảm họa môi trường: rừng ngập mặn Kỳ Anh đồng loạt chết” 28 April 2016. http://tinhdongchuacuuthe.com/bao-dong-do-ve-tham-hoa-moi-truong-mien-trung-hang-chuc-hecta-rung-ngap-man-dong-loat-chet-o-ky-anh-ha-tinh/ (accessed 12 September 2016)
TP. “‘Vương quốc’ chim đã chết” 28 April 2016. http://www.tienphong.vn/xa-hoi/vuong-quoc-chim-da-chet-997957.tpo (accessed 12 September 2016)
[ii] Hoài Nam. “Bó tay trước lượng chất thải rắn quá lớn” 20 July 2016. http://www.thesaigontimes.vn/149001/Bo-tay-truoc-luong-chat-thai-ran-qua-lon.html (accessed 11 September 2016)
[iii] [Vietsub] “Việt Nam Cá Chết – Phóng sự gây chấn động dư luận Đài Loan của đài truyền hình PTS” 29 June 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_BCiVbbyujk (accessed 11 September 2016)
[iv] JB Nguyễn Hữu Vinh. “Người dân Vũng Áng, Hà Tĩnh biểu tình phản đối cưỡng chế đất đai” 29 March 2014. https://anhbasam.wordpress.com/2014/03/30/2471-nguoi-dan-vung-ang-ha-tinh-bieu-tinh-phan-doi-cuong-che-dat-dai/ (accessed 11 September 2016)
[v] TMCNN. “Đức Tổng Giuse Ngô Quang Kiệt kể chuyện Vũng Áng” 22 June 2016. https://xuandienhannom.blogspot.com.au/2016/06/tong-giam-muc-ngo-quang-kiet-ke-chuyen.html (accessed September 2016).
[vi] Phạm Thanh Nghiên (Danlambao). “Hãy cứ tàn phá đi, khi còn có thể” 27 August 2016. http://danlambaovn.blogspot.com.au/2016/08/hay-cu-tan-pha-i-khi-con-co-the.html#more(accessed 27 August 2016)
[vii] Tỳ kheo Thích Viên Định. “https://anhbasam.wordpress.com/2016/04/27/8005-ban-len-tieng-cua-tang-doan-giao-hoi-phat-giao-viet-nam-thong-nhat-ve-tham-hoa-do-formosa-ha-tinh-gay-ra/” 27 April 2016. (accessed 08 August 2016)
[viii] “TUYÊN BỐ VỀ TỘI ÁC ĐẦU ĐỘC BIỂN MIỀN TRUNG VIỆT NAM” 20 May 2016. http://boxitvn.blogspot.com.au/2016/04/tuyen-bo-ve-toi-ac-au-oc-bien-mien.html (accessed 29 August 2016)
[ix] GNsP. “15.8: HÀNG CHỤC NGÀN GIÁO DÂN GIÁO PHẬN VINH XUỐNG ĐƯỜNG” 15 August 2016. https://xuandienhannom.blogspot.com.au/2016/08/hom-nay-hang-chuc-ngan-giao-dan-giao.html (accessed 04 September 2016)
[x] Đức Giám Mục Phaolô Nguyễn Thái Hợp. “Thư Chung của Đức Giám Mục Phaolô Nguyễn Thái Hợp Về Thảm Hoạ Ô Nhiễm Môi Trường Biển Miền Trung Việt Nam” 15 May 2016.http://www.daobinh.com/tin-tuc/giao-hoi-vn/thu-chung-cua-duc-giam-muc-phaolo-nguyen-thai-hop-ve-tham-hoa-o-nhiem-moi-truong-bien-mien-trung-viet-nam.htm (accessed 28 August 2016)
[xi] “TUYÊN BỐ CỦA CÁC TỔ CHỨC XÃ HỘI DÂN SỰ ĐỘC LẬP VỀ THẢM HỌA QUỐC GIA TẠI CÁC TỈNH MIỀN TRUNG” 29 April, 2016. http://boxitvn.blogspot.com.au/2016/04/tuyen-bo-cua-cac-to-chuc-xa-hoi-dan-su.html#more (accessed 29 August 2016)
[xii] “A call for action from the Vietnamese Blogger's Network” 22 July 2016. http://mangluoiblogger.blogspot.com.au/2016/07/a-call-for-action-from-vietnamese.html (accessed 29 August 2016)
[xiii] Blogger Vì Dân. “Ngư dân Hà Tĩnh tố cáo Nguyễn Tấn Dũng, Võ Kim Cự tiếp tay cho Formosa” 8 August 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dsHLBchxPtI (accessed 27 August 2016)
[xiv] BBC Vietnamese. “Miền Trung biểu tình chống Formosa” 08 August 2016. http://www.bbc.com/vietnamese/vietnam/2016/08/160808_formosa_nghe_an_protest (accessed 20 August 2016)
[xv] Xuân Nguyên, thông tín viên RFA. “Giáo phận Vinh đưa ra kiến nghị về ô nhiễm biển miền Trung” 28 May 2016. http://www.rfa.org/vietnamese/in_depth/VXN260516-05272016221805.html (accessed 28 August 2016).
[xvi] Luân Lê. “Ngông Cuồng” 30 June 2016. https://www.facebook.com/luatsuluanle/posts/1764963293747448 (accessed 16 August 2016).
[xvii] LS Nguyễn Văn Thân. “So sánh số tiền bồi thường giữa BP và Formosa” 10 August 2016. http://danlambaovn.blogspot.com.au/2016/08/so-sanh-so-tien-boi-thuong-giua-bp-va.html#more (accessed 20 August 2016)
[xviii] Dũng Nguyễn/Tiền Phong. “Làm rõ trách nhiệm mới không có Formosa thứ hai” 04 July 2016. https://anhbasam.wordpress.com/2016/07/04/9004-lam-ro-trach-nhiem-moi-khong-co-formosa-thu-hai/#more-169681 (accessed 11 September 2016)
[xix] Tieng DanViet Media. “Giới cầm quyên CSVN tiếp tay cho Formosa hủy diệt môi trường” 25 July 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5QVkCzlJ7xU (accessed 7 September 2016)
[xx] Thục Quyên. “Muốn tự vệ hữu hiệu, cần định rõ mối nguy” 02 August 2016. http://boxitvn.blogspot.com.au/2016/08/muon-tu-ve-huu-hieu-can-inh-ro-moi-nguy.html#more(accessed 20 August 2016)
[xxi] Mặc Lâm, biên tập viên RFA. “Biển đã sạch. Thật không?” 23 August 2016. http://www.rfa.org/vietnamese/in_depth/the-sea-has-been-cleaned-is-it-true-ml-08232016083217.html(accessed 10 September 2016)
[xxii] TS. Nguyễn Xuân Diện. “Dư luận về cuộc họp báo ‘Sự cố môi trường’ hôm 30-6” 04 July 2016. https://xuandienhannom.blogspot.com.au/2016/07/du-luan-ve-cuoc-hop-bao-su-co-moi.html#comment-form (accessed 16 August 2016).
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